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Nafta
Maturski, seminarski i diplomski radovi iz hemije.

SADRŽAJ

1.UVOD...................................................................................................................................5
2.OPŠTE O GORIVIMA ...............................................................................................
2.1.Definicija goriva i osnovna podela...............................................................................6
2.2.Tekuća goriva.................................................................................................................7
2.3.Prirodno tekuće gorivo – nafta.......................................................................................8
3.POVIJEST NAFTE.............................................................................................................8
4.POSTANAK NAFTE.............................................................................................................
4.1.Anorganska teorija.........................................................................................................10
4.2.Organska teorija ...........................................................................................................11
5.NALAZIŠTA NAFTE…………………………………………………………………….12
6.FIZIKALNA SVOJSTVA NAFTE........................................................................................
6.1.Gustoća..........................................................................................................................17
6.2.Isparljivost.....................................................................................................................17
6.3.Napon para....................................................................................................................17
6.4.Temperatura paljenja.....................................................................................................18
6.5.Viskoznost.....................................................................................................................18
7.KEMIJSKI SASTAV NAFTE........................................................................................18
7.1.Ugljikovodici..............................................................................................................19
7.1.1. Lančasti ugljikovodici........................................................................................19
7.1.1.1.Alkani.....................................................................................................20
7.1.1.2.Alkani s razgranatim lancima.................................................................21
7.1.1.3.Alkeni....................................................................................................21
7.1.2.Prstenasti ugljikovodici......................................................................................22
7.1.2.1.Cikloalkani...........................................................................................22
7.1.2.2.Areni.....................................................................................................22
7.2.Sumporni spojevi nafte.................................................................................................23
7.3.Dušikovi spojevi nafte...................................................................................................23
7.4.Kisikovi spojevi nafte ...................................................................................................23
7.5.Tragovi metala u nafti....................................................................................................23
8.KLASIFIKACIJA NAFTE................................................................................................24
8.1.Alkanska nafta...............................................................................................................24
8.2.Cikloalkanska nafta.......................................................................................................24
8.3.Aromatska nafta.............................................................................................................24
8.4.Asfaltna nafta.................................................................................................................24
8.5.Mješovite nafte...............................................................................................................25
9.PRERADA NAFTE................................................................................................................
9.1.Frakcijska destilacija....................................................................................................25
9.2.Krekiranje.....................................................................................................................28
9.3.Polimerizacija................................................................................................................29
9.4.Rafinacija ......................................................................................................................30
9.4.1. Solventna rafinacija...........................................................................................30
10.PROIZVODI PRERADE NAFTE........................................................................................
10.1.Benzin........................................................................................................................31
11.ZAKLJUČAK....................................................................................................................34
12.LITERATURA..................................................................................................................36



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