DISJUNCTS -Engleski

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DISJUNCTS -Engleski
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A disjunct is a type of an adverbial adjunct which expresses information that is not considered essential to the sentence it appears in, but which is considered to be the speaker's or writer's own attitude towards, or the descriptive statement of, the propositional content of the sentence. A disjunct does not fit into the flow of the sentence and is often separated by a comma or a set of commas. A disjunct normally acts as an evaluation of the rest of the sentence. Although it usually modifies the verb, we could say that it modifies the entire clause, too.

The name 'disjunct' would seem to suggest that these have some kind of connection with (con)junctive items, but that their role is, if anything, to signal an absence of conjunction. The distinction between conjuncts (however, in addition, etc.) and disjuncts is now well established and corresponds to a broader distinction, based on the propositional view of cohesion outlined above, between text-structuring and writer's comment, which are seen as largely unrelated. Their approach emphasizes that the scope of disjuncts is simply the sentence in which they appear ('contributing another facet of information to a single integrated unit') while conjuncts function between clauses or other elements ('conjoining independent units')...

Disjuncts and adjuncts

What is the difference between disjuncts on one hand and adjuncts and subjuncts on the other? Consider the adverbials in the following sentences:

1. Sadly, you have failed the exam
2. Mary is, in all frankness, acting very strangely.
3. Since he made that mistake, he couldn’t be a part of the team.

We note, first of all, that it is not the form of these adverbials that makes them different from adjuncts or even from subjuncts:

4. The student stared sadly at the professor.
5. The witness talked in all frankness about the night of the crime.
6. He couldn’t be a part of the team since he made that mistake.


Classification accodring to Quirk et al.


Disjuncts can be divided into two main classes: content disjuncts and style disjuncts (which is by far the smaller class). Content disjuncts (also known as attitudinal disjuncts) make observations on the actual content of the utterance and its truth conditions. Style disjuncts convey the speaker's comment on the style and the form of what he is saying, defining in some way under what conditions he is speaking as the 'authority' for the utterance.

Disjuncts:

Content – making an observation as to:
A) Degree of conditions for the truth of content (really, certainly)
B) The value judgment of the content (surprisingly, wisely)

The ambiguity of disjuncts and other strustures

Certain stance adverbials can have ambiguous or even multiple functions. The most common ambiguity occurs when an item is a stance adverbial or a circumstance adverbial of extent/degree (or in some cases not an adverbial at all, but an adverb integrated into the structure of a phrase as a modifier. The adverb really is for example very difficult to analyse. Certain instances seem to have the epistemic stance meaning “In reality” or “in truth”, particularly when an adverb appears in initial and final positions: Really, you’ve noticed my new hairstyle? I had no choice, really.

When really occurs medially, it often also has an epistemic stance meaning with prepositions that concern absolute characteristics: Was he ever really happy? We have to admit there is no proof that smoking really causes cancer.

However in medial position with gradable prepositions , determination of the meaning can be very difficult. In the following examples, really could have the stance meaning of “in reality” or it could be interpreted as intensifying a verb or an adjective with the approximate meaning “very much”: It’s really wonderful. I’m really excited about the trip. Even the wider context cannot clarify what the writer/speaker had in mind in such cases.

Disjuncts: a syntactic overview

Clausal realizations of content disjuncts occur fairly freely with questions:

If the weather is nice, may we go for a swim?
(What is) even more interesting, did you hear her reply to that second
question?

When realized by adverbs, however, most content disjuncts cannot appear in any position in a direct or indirect question:

*Has she fortunately heard the news?
*He asked whether, fortunately, she had heard the news.....

Sadržaj :

INTRODUCTION 3
1.1 Disjuncts and adjuncts 3
1.2 Classification accodring to Quirk et al. 6
1.3 Content disjuncts 6
1.4 Classification according to Biber et al. 9
1.5 The ambiguity of disjuncts and other strustures 10
1.6 Position of disjuncts 11
1.7 Corpus analysis 12
1.8 Disjuncts: a syntactic overview 14
CONCLUSION 18
BIBLIOGRAPHY 18


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